Conquestador dt. (incl. Scenariodisk). Screenshots 1 2 · Cover. Spielinformationen. Hersteller: German Design Group. Jahr: Eingespielt am: Angeboten, wird das Spiel Conquestador für den Amiga. Es ist gebraucht und in gutem bis sehr gutem Zustand. Das Poster fehlt. Komplett auf Deutsch. Benötigt. Conquestador Spoils of War. Gib Deine Bewertung ab! Bisher 7 Stimmen bei einer Gesamtwertung von C64/ Entwickler: German Design Group. Angeboten, wird das Spiel Conquestador für den Amiga. Es ist gebraucht und in gutem bis sehr gutem Zustand. Das Poster fehlt. Komplett auf Deutsch. Benötigt. Conquestador Spoils of War. Gib Deine Bewertung ab! Bisher 7 Stimmen bei einer Gesamtwertung von C64/ Entwickler: German Design Group. Conquestador dt. (incl. Scenariodisk). Screenshots 1 2 · Cover. Spielinformationen. Hersteller: German Design Group. Jahr: Eingespielt am:
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Want to learn more? Pedrarias expanded the colony but was responsible for enslaving and murdering the Indian population, despite royal orders for more humane Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Pedrarias expanded the colony but was responsible for enslaving and murdering the Indian population, despite royal orders for more humane treatment.
Eyewitness accounts of Aztec culture on the eve of the conquest are, of course, the most directly pertinent sources because they describe Aztec culture before it became transformed by the Spanish conquest.
History at your fingertips. Their main African base was in Mozambique , and therefore the Portuguese navigators preferred to use the Mozambique Channel to go to India.
The Comoros at the north proved to be a more practical port of call. Based on the Treaty of Tordesillas , Manuel I claimed territorial rights in the area visited by John Cabot in and Accompanied by colonists from mainland Portugal and the Azores, he explored Newfoundland and Nova Scotia possibly reaching the Bay of Fundy on the Minas Basin  , and established a fishing colony on Cape Breton Island , that would last some years or until at least s, based on contemporary accounts.
The first settlement was founded in Some European countries, especially France, were also sending excursions to Brazil to extract brazilwood.
Worried about the foreign incursions and hoping to find mineral riches, the Portuguese crown decided to send large missions to take possession of the land and combat the French.
As time passed, the Portuguese created the Viceroyalty of Brazil. The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes  while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.
The Dutch sacked Bahia in , and temporarily captured the capital Salvador. In the s and s, the Dutch West India Company established many trade posts or colonies.
The Spanish silver fleet, which carried silver from Spanish colonies to Spain, were seized by Piet Heyn in In Suriname and Guyana were established.
He landed at Recife , the port of Pernambuco and the chief stronghold of the Dutch, in January In most of the inhabitants of the town Pernambuco Recife , in the future Dutch colony of Brazil were Sephardic Jews who had been banned by the Portuguese Inquisition to this town at the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.
As some years afterward the Dutch in Brazil appealed to Holland for craftsmen of all kinds, many Jews went to Brazil; about Jews left Amsterdam in , accompanied by two distinguished scholars — Isaac Aboab da Fonseca and Moses Raphael de Aguilar.
In the struggle between Holland and Portugal for the possession of Brazil the Dutch were supported by the Jews. From to , the Dutch set up more permanently in the Nordeste and controlled a long stretch of the coast most accessible to Europe, without, however, penetrating the interior.
But the colonists of the Dutch West India Company in Brazil were in a constant state of siege, in spite of the presence in Recife of John Maurice of Nassau as governor.
After several years of open warfare, the Dutch formally withdrew in Portuguese sent military expeditions to the Amazon Rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds,  founding villages and forts from Before the Iberian Union period — , Spain tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into Brazil with the Treaty of Tordesillas.
This was disputed in vain, and in Spain confirmed Portuguese sovereignty. The defeat of Abu Abdallah and the death of Portugal's king led to the end of the Portuguese Aviz dynasty and later to the integration of Portugal and its empire at the Iberian Union for 60 years under Sebastian's uncle Philip II of Spain.
Philip was married to his relative Mary I cousin of his father, due to this, Philip was King of England and Ireland  in a dynastic union with Spain.
The English-Spanish wars of — were clashes not only in English and Spanish ports or on the sea between them but also in and around the present-day territories of Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Panama.
Even though the Portuguese were unable to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they were able to control its coastal regions for a considerable time.
From to mostly, the Bandeirantes in Brazil focused on slave hunting, then from to they focused on mineral wealth. Through these expeditions and the Dutch—Portuguese War , Colonial Brazil expanded from the small limits of the Tordesilhas Line to roughly the same borders as current Brazil.
In the 17th century, taking advantage of this period of Portuguese weakness, the Dutch occupied many Portuguese territories in Brazil.
He landed at Recife, the port of Pernambuco, in January The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was long lasting and troublesome to Portugal.
The large area of Bahia and its city, the strategically important Salvador, was recovered quickly by an Iberian military expedition in After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in , Portugal re-established authority over its lost territories including remaining Dutch controlled areas.
The other smaller, less developed areas were recovered in stages and relieved of Dutch piracy in the next two decades by local resistance and Portuguese expeditions.
Spanish Formosa was established in Taiwan, first by Portugal in and later renamed and repositioned by Spain in Keelung.
It became a natural defence site for the Iberian Union. The colony was designed to protect Spanish and Portuguese trade from interference by the Dutch base in the south of Taiwan.
The Spanish colony was short-lived due to the unwillingness of Spanish colonial authorities in Manila to defend it.
While technological superiority, cultural factors and local allies played an important role in the victories of the conquistadors in the Americas, their conquest was greatly facilitated by old world diseases: smallpox , chicken pox , diphtheria , typhus , influenza , measles , malaria and yellow fever.
The diseases were carried to distant tribes and villages. This typical path of disease transmission moved much faster than the conquistadors, so that as they advanced, resistance weakened.
The American natives lacked immunity to these infections. When Francisco Coronado and the Spaniards first explored the Rio Grande Valley in , in modern New Mexico, some of the chieftains complained of new diseases that affected their tribes.
Cabeza de Vaca reported that in , when the Spanish landed in Texas, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us.
The first epidemic was recorded in and killed the emperor Huayna Capac , the father of Atahualpa. Further epidemics of smallpox broke out in , , and , as well as typhus in , influenza in , diphtheria in and measles in Recently developed tree-ring evidence shows that the illness which reduced the population in Aztec Mexico was aided by a great drought in the 16th century, and which continued through the arrival of the Spanish conquest.
The cocoliztli epidemic from to killed an estimated, additional 2 to 2. The American researcher H. The conquistadors found new animal species, but reports confused these with monsters such as giants, dragons, or ghosts.
An early motive for exploration was the search for Cipango, the place where gold was born. Cathay and Cibao were later goals.
Books such as The Travels of Marco Polo fuelled rumours of mythical places. In , Francisco de Orellana reached the Amazon River , naming it after a tribe of warlike women he claimed to have fought there.
Others claimed that the similarity between Indio and Iudio , the Spanish-language word for 'Jew' around , revealed the indigenous peoples' origin.
Sir Walter Raleigh and some Italian, Spanish, Dutch, French and Portuguese expeditions were looking for the wonderful Guiana empire that gave its name to the present day countries of the Guianas.
Several expeditions went in search of these fabulous places, but returned empty-handed, or brought less gold than they had hoped. They discovered new routes, ocean currents , trade winds , crops, spices and other products.
In the sail era knowledge of winds and currents was essential, for example, the Agulhas current long prevented Portuguese sailors from reaching India.
Various places in Africa and the Americas have been named after the imagined cities made of gold, rivers of gold and precious stones.
Marching westward in to find the land of the "White King", he was the first European to cross South America from the East. He discovered a great waterfall [ clarification needed ] and the Chaco Plain.
He managed to penetrate the outer defences of the Inca Empire on the hills of the Andes , in present-day Bolivia , the first European to do so, eight years before Francisco Pizarro.
Garcia looted a booty of silver. The Spanish discovery of what they thought at that time was India, and the constant competition of Portugal and Spain led to a desire for secrecy about every trade route and every colony.
As a consequence, many documents that could reach other European countries included fake dates and faked facts, to mislead any other nation's possible efforts.
For example, the Island of California refers to a famous cartographic error propagated on many maps during the 17th and 18th centuries, despite contradictory evidence from various explorers.
The legend was initially infused with the idea that California was a terrestrial paradise, peopled by black women Amazons. The tendency to secrecy and falsification of dates casts doubts about the authenticity of many primary sources.
Several historians have hypothesized that John II may have known of the existence of Brazil and North America as early as , thus explaining his wish in at the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas , to push the line of influence further west.
Many historians suspect that the real documents would have been placed in the Library of Lisbon. Ferdinand II King of Aragon and Regent of Castile, incorporated the American territories into the Kingdom of Castile and then withdrew the authority granted to governor Christopher Columbus and the first conquistadors.
He established direct royal control with the Council of the Indies , the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire , both in the Americas and in Asia.
After unifying Castile, Ferdinand introduced to Castile many laws, regulations and institutions such as the Inquisition , that were typical in Aragon.
These laws were later used in the new lands. The Laws of Burgos , created in —, were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of settlers in Spanish colonial America, particularly with regards to Native Americans.
They forbade the maltreatment of indigenous people, and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism. Emperor Charles V was already using the term " Council of the Indies " in The Crown reserved for itself important tools of intervention.
The "capitulacion" clearly stated that the conquered territories belonged to the Crown, not to the individual.
On the other hand, concessions allowed the Crown to guide the Companies conquests to certain territories, depending on their interests.
In addition, the leader of the expedition received clear instructions about their duties towards the army, the native population, the type of military action.
A written report about the results was mandatory. The army had a royal official, the "veedor". The "veedor" or notary, ensured they complied with orders and instructions and preserved the King's share of the booty.
Armed groups sought supplies and funds in various ways. Financing was requested from the King, delegates of the Crown, the nobility, rich merchants or the troops themselves.
The more professional campaigns were funded by the Crown. Campaigns were sometimes initiated by inexperienced governors, because in Spanish Colonial America , offices were bought or handed to relatives or cronies.
Sometimes, an expedition of conquistadors were a group of influential men who had recruited and equipped their fighters, by promising a share of the booty.
Aside from the explorations predominated by Spain and Portugal, other parts of Europe also aided in colonization of the New World.
King Charles I was documented to receive loans from German bank Welser to help finance the Venezuela expedition for gold.
The conquistador borrowed as little as possible, preferring to invest all their belongings. Sometimes, every soldier brought his own equipment and supplies, other times the soldiers received gear as an advance from the conquistador.
Sponsors included governments, the king, viceroys, and local governors backed by rich men. The contribution of each individual conditioned the subsequent division of the booty, receiving a portion the pawn lancero, piquero, alabardero, rodelero and twice a man on horseback caballero owner of a horse.
Even the dogs, important weapons of war in their own right, were in some cases rewarded. The division of the booty produced conflicts, such as the one between Pizarro and Almagro.
Conquistadors had overwhelming military advantages over the native peoples. They belonged to a more militarily advanced civilization with better techniques, tools, a few number of crude fire arms, artillery, iron, steel and domesticated animals.
Horses and mules carried them, pigs fed them and dogs fought for them. The indigenous peoples had the advantage of established settlements, determination to remain independent and large numerical superiority.
European diseases and divide and conquer tactics contributed to the defeat of the native populations.
In the Iberian peninsula, in a situation of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly interlinked. Small, lightly equipped armies were maintained at all times.
The state of war continued intermittently for centuries and created a very warlike culture in Iberia. Another factor was the ability of the conquistadors to manipulate the political situation between indigenous peoples.
To beat the Inca civilization, they supported one side of a civil war. They overthrew the Aztec civilization by allying with natives who had been subjugated by more powerful neighbouring tribes and kingdoms.
These tactics had been used since antiquity, for example, in the Granada War , the conquest of the Canary Islands and conquest of Navarre. The Europeans practiced war within the terms and laws of their concept of a just war.
While Spanish soldiers went to the battlefield to kill their enemies, the Aztecs and Mayas captured their enemies for use as sacrificial victims to their gods—a process called " flower war " by Spanish historians.
In traditional cultures of the Stone Age , Bronze Age , and hunter-gatherer societies the warfare was mostly 'endemic', long duration, low intensity, usually evolving into almost a ritualized form.
By contrast, Europe had moved to 'sporadic' warfare in the Middle Ages due to the availability of professionally mercenary armies.
Aztec and other native peoples practiced an endemic system of warfare as well, and so were easily defeated by Spanish and Portuguese sporadic-warfare armies in the early s.
These forces were capable of quickly moving long distances, allowing a quick return home after battle. Wars were mainly between clans, expelling intruders.
On land, these wars combined some European methods with techniques from Muslim bandits in Al-Andalus. These tactics consisted of small groups who attempted to catch their opponents by surprise, through an ambush.
In Mombasa , Dom Vasco da Gama resorted to piracy , looting Arab merchant ships, which were generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannons.
Spanish conquistadors in the Americas made extensive use of short swords and crossbows , with arquebus becoming widespread only from the s.
Animals were another important factor for Spanish triumph. On the one hand, the introduction of the horse and other domesticated pack animals allowed them greater mobility unknown to the Indian cultures.
However, in the mountains and jungles, the Spaniards were less able to use narrow Amerindian roads and bridges made for pedestrian traffic, which were sometimes no wider than a few feet.
Save Word. Definition of conquistador. First Known Use of conquistador , in the meaning defined above. History and Etymology for conquistador Spanish, ultimately from Latin conquirere — see conquer.
Keep scrolling for more. Learn More about conquistador. Time Traveler for conquistador The first known use of conquistador was in See more words from the same year.
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