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Evidence from ancient Middle America Aztecs, Mayans is still almost nonexistent; evidence from India is tenuous and from ancient China , Greece, and Islamic lands is only relatively more plentiful.
A single manuscript of some 80, words is the principal source for the history of Greek alchemy. Neither Indian nor Islamic alchemy has ever been collected, and scholars are thus dependent for their knowledge of the subject on occasional allusions in works of natural philosophy and medicine, plus a few specifically alchemical works.
Nor is it really clear what alchemy was or is. The word is a European one, derived from Arabic, but the origin of the root word, chem , is uncertain.
Frater Albertus Dr. Hall Wouter Hanegraaff b. Newman b. Pattison Muir — Lawrence M. Principe Joost Ritman b. As James Randi notes in his "Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural," "Beginning about the year and reaching its flower in medieval times, alchemy was an art based partly upon experimentation and partly upon magic.
Early investigators of natural processes centered their search on a mythical substance they knew as philosopher's stone, which was supposed to possess many valuable attributes such as the power to heal, to prolong life, and to change base metals into precious metal — such as gold.
Historian Nevill Drury, in his book "Magic and Witchcraft," notes that, "The word alchemy is thought to derive from an Egyptian word, 'chem' or 'qem,' meaning black — a reference to the black alluvial soils bordering the Nile We know that the Greek word 'chyma,' meaning to fuse or cast metals, established itself in Arabic as 'al kimia' — from which alchemy is derived.
Having the ability to turn lead into gold has obvious benefits these days, but ancient alchemists did not seek to change base metals into gold simply out of greed; as Drury notes, "The alchemists did not regard all metals as equally mature or 'perfect.
A 'golden' human being was resplendent with spiritual beauty and had triumphed over the lurking power of evil.
The basest metal, lead , represented the sinful and unrepentant individual who was readily overcome by the forces of darkness Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
L'alchimista antico. Editrice Bibliografica. Princeton University Press. The Four Books of Pseudo-Democritus. Leeds: Maney. Becoming Gold.
Auckland: Rubedo Press. Berkeley: California Classical Studies. Considering that the treatise does not mention any count nor counting and that it makes a case against the use of sacrifice in the practice of alchemy, a preferable translation would be "the Final Abstinence".
See Dufault, Olivier Early Greek Alchemy, Patronage and Innovation. Ethnomethodological Studies of Work.
University of Chicago Press, A Short History of Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications. London: Muller. Alchemy: Science of the Cosmos, Science of the Soul.
William Stoddart. Baltimore: Penguin. Sherwood Taylor. Alchemists, Founders of Modern Chemistry. Alchemy and early modern chemistry: papers from Ambix.
Late antiquity: a guide to the postclassical world. Internet Archive. Retrieved 11 July A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder.
JHU Press. The Arthashastra. Penguin Books India. Jan — History of Indian Medical Literature. Groningen: Egbert Forsten.
IIA, — Cairo — Ahmad Y Hassan. Retrieved 16 September Acta Crystallographica Section A. Bibcode : AcCrA.. Distilling knowledge: alchemy, chemistry, and the scientific revolution.
Harvard University Press. London: Routledge. The Making of Humanity , p. Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. III, pp. Warren Medieval Europe: A Short History 6th ed.
From Alchemy to Chemistry. Albertus Magnus and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays. Alchemy and Authority in the Holy Roman Empire.
Columbia University Press, Hegel and the Hermetic Tradition. Cornell University Press. The Dark Side of History.
New York: Stein and Day. Alchemy and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge University Press. Centre for Renaissance Texts, , MIT Press, Principe, 'Princeton University Press', , pp.
Alchemy and authority in the Holy Roman Empire. Robert Boyle: Father of Chemistry. London: John Murray. SUNY Press.
Croire l'Incroyable. Grez-Doiceau: Beya. Chemical Heritage Foundation. The origins of alchemy in Graeco-Roman Egypt.
Jewish Encyclopedia. Western esotericism and the science of religion. University of Exeter. Retrieved 21 April Alchemy and early modern chemistry.
The Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry. Spagyrical discovery and invention: magisteries of gold and immortality.
February Alkimia Operativa and Alkimia Speculativa.